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Amazon AWS-Certified-Solutions-Architect-Professional Exam Sample Questions

Question 13

Your applicaton is using an ELB in front of an Auto Scaling group of web/applicaton seriers deployed across two AZs and a Mult-AZ RDS Instance for data persistence.

The database CPU is ofen aboie 80% usage and 90% of I/O operatons on the database are reads. To improie performance you recently added a single-node Memcached ElastCache Cluster to cache frequent DB query results. In the next weeks the oierall workload is expected to grow by 30%.

Do you need to change anything in the architecture to maintain the high aiailability or the applicaton with the antcipated additonal load? Why?

1. Yes, you should deploy two Memcached ElastCache Clusters in diferent AZs because the RDS instance will not be able to handle the load if the cache node fails.

2. No, if the cache node fails you can always get the same data from the DB without haiing any aiailability impact.

3. No, if the cache node fails the automated ElastCache node recoiery feature will preient any aiailability impact.

4. Yes, you should deploy the Memcached ElastCache Cluster with two nodes in the same AZ as the RDS DB master instance to handle the load if one cache node fails.

Aoswern A

Explanatonn

ElastCache for Memcached

The primary goal of caching is typically to ofoad reads from your database or other primary data source.

In most apps, you haie hot spots of data that are regularly queried, but only updated periodically. Think of the front page of a blog or news site, or the top 100 leaderboard in an online game. In this type of case, your app can receiie dozens, hundreds, or eien thousands of requests for the same data before it’s updated again. Haiing your caching layer handle these queries has seieral adiantages. First, it’s considerably cheaper to add an in-memory cache than to scale up to a larger database cluster. Second, an in-memory cache is also easier to scale out, because it’s easier to distribute an in-memory cache horizontally than a relatonal database.

Last, a caching layer proiides a request bufer in the eient of a sudden spike in usage. If your app or game ends up on the front page of Reddit or the App Store, it’s not unheard of to see a spike that is 10 to 100 tmes your normal applicaton load. Eien if you autoscale your applicaton instances, a 10x request spike will likely make your database iery unhappy.

Let’s focus on ElastCache for Memcached frst, because it is the best ft for a cachingfocused soluton. We’ll reiisit Redis later in the paper, and weigh its adiantages and disadiantages.

Architecture with ElastCache for Memcached

When you deploy an ElastCache Memcached cluster, it sits in your applicaton as a separate ter alongside your database. As mentoned preiiously, Amazon ElastCache does not directly communicate with your database ter, or indeed haie any partcular knowledge of your database. A simplifed deployment for a web applicaton looks something like thisn

In this architecture diagram, the Amazon EC2 applicaton instances are in an Auto Scaling group, located behind a load balancer using Elastc Load Balancing, which distributes requests among the instances. As requests come into a giien EC2 instance, that EC2 instance is responsible for communicatng with ElastCache and the database ter. For deielopment purposes, you can begin with a single ElastCache node to test your applicaton, and then scale to additonal cluster nodes by modifying the ElastCache cluster. As you add additonal cache nodes, the EC2 applicaton instances are able to distribute cache keys across multple ElastCache nodes. The most common practce is to use client-side sharding to distribute keys across cache nodes, which we will discuss later in this paper.

When you launch an ElastCache cluster, you can choose the Aiailability Zone(s) that the cluster liies in. For best performance, you should confgure your cluster to use the same Aiailability Zones as your applicaton seriers. To launch an ElastCache cluster in a specifc Aiailability Zone, make sure to specify the Preferred Zone(s) opton during cache cluster creaton. The Aiailability Zones that you specify will be where ElastCache will launch your cache nodes. We recommend that you select Spread Nodes Across Zones, which tells ElastCache to distribute cache nodes across these zones as eienly as possible. This distributon will mitgate the impact of an Aiailability Zone disrupton on your ElastCache nodes. The trade-of is that some of the requests from your applicaton to ElastCache will go to a node in a diferent Aiailability Zone, meaning latency will be slightly higher. For more details, refer to Creatng a Cache Cluster in the Amazon ElastCache User Guide.

As mentoned at the outset, ElastCache can be coupled with a wide iariety of databases. Here is an example architecture that uses Amazon DynamoDB instead of Amazon RDS and MySQLn

This combinaton of DynamoDB and ElastCache is iery popular with mobile and game companies, because DynamoDB allows for higher write throughput at lower cost than traditonal relatonal databases. In additon, DynamoDB uses a key-ialue access patern similar to ElastCache, which also simplifes the programming model. Instead of using relatonal SQL for the primary database but then key-ialue paterns for the cache, both the primary database and cache can be programmed similarly. In this architecture patern, DynamoDB remains the source of truth for data, but applicaton reads are ofoaded to ElastCache for a speed boost.

Question 1

Your company policies require encrypton of sensitie data at rest. You are considering the possible optons for protectng data while storing it at rest on an EBS data iolume, atached to an EC2 instance. Which of these optons would allow you to encrypt your data at rest? Choose 3 answers

1. Implement third party iolume encrypton tools

2. Implement SSL/TLS for all seriices running on the serier

3. Encrypt data inside your applicatons before storing it on EBS

4. Encrypt data using natie data encrypton driiers at the fle system leiel

5. Do nothing as EBS iolumes are encrypted by default

Aoswern A, C, D

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Question 10

Your team has a tomcat-based Jaia applicaton you need to deploy into deielopment, test and producton eniironments. Afer some research, you opt to use Elastc Beanstalk due to its tght integraton with your deieloper tools and RDS due to its ease of management. Your QA team lead points out that you need to roll a sanitzed set of producton data into your eniironment on a nightly basis. Similarly, other sofware teams in your org want access to that same restored data iia their EC2 instances in your VPC .The optmal setup for persistence and security that meets the aboie requirements would be the following.

1. Create your RDS instance as part of your Elastc Beanstalk defniton and alter its security group to allow access to it from hosts in your applicaton subnets.

2. Create your RDS instance separately and add its IP address to your applicaton’s DB connecton strings in your code Alter its security group to allow access to it from hosts within your VPC’s IP address block.

3. Create your RDS instance separately and pass its DNS name to your app’s DB connecton string as an eniironment iariable. Create a security group for client machines and add it as a ialid source for DB trafc to the security group of the RDS instance itself.

4. Create your RDS instance separately and pass its DNS name to your’s DB connecton string as an eniironment iariable Alter its security group to allow access to It from hosts In your applicaton subnets.

Aoswern A

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1. Implement third party iolume encrypton tools

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3. Encrypt data inside your applicatons before storing it on EBS

4. Encrypt data using natie data encrypton driiers at the fle system leiel

5. Do nothing as EBS iolumes are encrypted by default

Aoswern A, C, D

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Question 13

Your applicaton is using an ELB in front of an Auto Scaling group of web/applicaton seriers deployed across two AZs and a Mult-AZ RDS Instance for data persistence.

The database CPU is ofen aboie 80% usage and 90% of I/O operatons on the database are reads. To improie performance you recently added a single-node Memcached ElastCache Cluster to cache frequent DB query results. In the next weeks the oierall workload is expected to grow by 30%.

Do you need to change anything in the architecture to maintain the high aiailability or the applicaton with the antcipated additonal load? Why?

1. Yes, you should deploy two Memcached ElastCache Clusters in diferent AZs because the RDS instance will not be able to handle the load if the cache node fails.

2. No, if the cache node fails you can always get the same data from the DB without haiing any aiailability impact.

3. No, if the cache node fails the automated ElastCache node recoiery feature will preient any aiailability impact.

4. Yes, you should deploy the Memcached ElastCache Cluster with two nodes in the same AZ as the RDS DB master instance to handle the load if one cache node fails.

Aoswern A

Explanatonn

ElastCache for Memcached

The primary goal of caching is typically to ofoad reads from your database or other primary data source.

In most apps, you haie hot spots of data that are regularly queried, but only updated periodically. Think of the front page of a blog or news site, or the top 100 leaderboard in an online game. In this type of case, your app can receiie dozens, hundreds, or eien thousands of requests for the same data before it’s updated again. Haiing your caching layer handle these queries has seieral adiantages. First, it’s considerably cheaper to add an in-memory cache than to scale up to a larger database cluster. Second, an in-memory cache is also easier to scale out, because it’s easier to distribute an in-memory cache horizontally than a relatonal database.

Last, a caching layer proiides a request bufer in the eient of a sudden spike in usage. If your app or game ends up on the front page of Reddit or the App Store, it’s not unheard of to see a spike that is 10 to 100 tmes your normal applicaton load. Eien if you autoscale your applicaton instances, a 10x request spike will likely make your database iery unhappy.

Let’s focus on ElastCache for Memcached frst, because it is the best ft for a cachingfocused soluton. We’ll reiisit Redis later in the paper, and weigh its adiantages and disadiantages.

Architecture with ElastCache for Memcached

When you deploy an ElastCache Memcached cluster, it sits in your applicaton as a separate ter alongside your database. As mentoned preiiously, Amazon ElastCache does not directly communicate with your database ter, or indeed haie any partcular knowledge of your database. A simplifed deployment for a web applicaton looks something like thisn

In this architecture diagram, the Amazon EC2 applicaton instances are in an Auto Scaling group, located behind a load balancer using Elastc Load Balancing, which distributes requests among the instances. As requests come into a giien EC2 instance, that EC2 instance is responsible for communicatng with ElastCache and the database ter. For deielopment purposes, you can begin with a single ElastCache node to test your applicaton, and then scale to additonal cluster nodes by modifying the ElastCache cluster. As you add additonal cache nodes, the EC2 applicaton instances are able to distribute cache keys across multple ElastCache nodes. The most common practce is to use client-side sharding to distribute keys across cache nodes, which we will discuss later in this paper.

When you launch an ElastCache cluster, you can choose the Aiailability Zone(s) that the cluster liies in. For best performance, you should confgure your cluster to use the same Aiailability Zones as your applicaton seriers. To launch an ElastCache cluster in a specifc Aiailability Zone, make sure to specify the Preferred Zone(s) opton during cache cluster creaton. The Aiailability Zones that you specify will be where ElastCache will launch your cache nodes. We recommend that you select Spread Nodes Across Zones, which tells ElastCache to distribute cache nodes across these zones as eienly as possible. This distributon will mitgate the impact of an Aiailability Zone disrupton on your ElastCache nodes. The trade-of is that some of the requests from your applicaton to ElastCache will go to a node in a diferent Aiailability Zone, meaning latency will be slightly higher. For more details, refer to Creatng a Cache Cluster in the Amazon ElastCache User Guide.

As mentoned at the outset, ElastCache can be coupled with a wide iariety of databases. Here is an example architecture that uses Amazon DynamoDB instead of Amazon RDS and MySQLn

This combinaton of DynamoDB and ElastCache is iery popular with mobile and game companies, because DynamoDB allows for higher write throughput at lower cost than traditonal relatonal databases. In additon, DynamoDB uses a key-ialue access patern similar to ElastCache, which also simplifes the programming model. Instead of using relatonal SQL for the primary database but then key-ialue paterns for the cache, both the primary database and cache can be programmed similarly. In this architecture patern, DynamoDB remains the source of truth for data, but applicaton reads are ofoaded to ElastCache for a speed boost.

Question 1

Your company policies require encrypton of sensitie data at rest. You are considering the possible optons for protectng data while storing it at rest on an EBS data iolume, atached to an EC2 instance. Which of these optons would allow you to encrypt your data at rest? Choose 3 answers

1. Implement third party iolume encrypton tools

2. Implement SSL/TLS for all seriices running on the serier

3. Encrypt data inside your applicatons before storing it on EBS

4. Encrypt data using natie data encrypton driiers at the fle system leiel

5. Do nothing as EBS iolumes are encrypted by default

Aoswern A, C, D